top of page

Temporomandibular Joint Disorders (TMJ/TMD)

What is TMD?

TMJ stands for temporomandibular joint, which is the joint that connects the jawbone to the skull. TMJ disorder, or TMD, is a condition in which there is pain and dysfunction in this joint and the muscles that control jaw movement. Symptoms of TMD can include pain or tenderness in the jaw, face, neck, or shoulders, clicking or popping sounds when opening or closing the mouth, difficulty or discomfort when chewing, and locking of the jaw.


TMD can be caused by a variety of factors, including injury, arthritis, teeth grinding or clenching, stress, and misalignment of the teeth or jaw. Treatment for TMD may include lifestyle changes, physical therapy, medications, or dental devices such as mouthguards or splints.

Signs & Symptoms May Include:

  • Jaw and facial pain 

  • Clicking or grating sound of the joint proper

  • Pain radiating to ears, face and head

  • Neck Pain and limited movement.

  • Headaches and Ear symptoms are frequently associated with TMJD

  • Functional or movement limitations such as cramping or locking of the jaw

  • Pain associated with chewing, yawning or talking for extended periods

Potential Causes

  • Trauma (direct or indirect) direct injuries to the TMJ and Associated Structures 

  • Direct injuries my include blunt force trauma to the jaw structures 

  • Indirect injuries may include acceleration/ deceleration or more commonly referred to as whiplash

  • Severe imbalances of the dental bite or lack of support

  • Stress, fatigue and bruxism.

  • Post-Traumatic stress disorders 

  • Arthritis of the TMJ

  • Systemic conditions such as Rheumatic Diseases or conditions. 

  • Sleep disorders

bottom of page